Masonry can be defined as the construction of building units together with mortar. Stones and bricks are the commonly used building units. Masonry may also be used for the construction of walls. It may be divided into two as stone masonry and brick masonry. Stone masonry is mainly used for constructing the fence whereas the Brick Masonry is used for constructing the walls of buildings.
Stone masonry is the roughest and cheapest form of stone walling. Stone Masonry is divided into two as Rubble Masonry and Ashlar Masonry. Rubble masonry is again divided into random rubble and square rubble. In Random rubble, the stones used are of widely different sizes , whereas in square rubble, the stones used are usually squared and should brought to hammer dressed or straight cut finish. Polygon walling is also a type of rubble masonry .In this type, the stones are hammer finished on face to an irregular polygonal shape. These stones are bedded in position to show face joints running irregularly in all directions.
In Ashlar Masonry, the stones used may be extremely dressed. The blocks may be either square or rectangular shape. There are different types of ashlar masonries. One such type is ashlar fine tooled masonry. It is the finest type of stone masonry work. Here each stone is cut to regular size and shape. So as to have all sides rectangular. So that the stone give perfectly horizontal and vertical joints with adjoining stone. Another type is ashlar rough tooled, here the only difference is that bed and sides of each stone block are finely hammered. Here the exposed face is finished by rough tooling.
Types of stone masonry:
- A) Rubble Masonry:
In Rubble masonry the stones utilized are either undressed or similarly roughly dressed.
- I) Random rubble
- Un-coursed (Random Rubble)
It is the roughest and the least costly type of stone walling. Since stones are not uniform shape and size, they are arranged with extraordinary care to convey weight over maximum area and in the meantime keep away from long vertical joints.
- Built to course (Coursed Rubble)
It is similar to un-coursed with the exception of that the work is generally levelled up to form courses 30-45 cm thick and at least 15 cm.
- ii) Square rubble
Stones having straight beds and sides are organized in irregular pattern to give great appearance and keep away the formation of long, continuous joints.
- Built to Course
Stones having straight beds and sides are levelled up to form courses of varying depth.
- Regular Course
Stones having straight beds and sides are levelled up to form courses of varying depth yet the height of stones in each course, is the same.
iii) Miscellaneous type
- Polygonal rubble masonry
In this type, stone is hammer completed on face to an irregular polygonal shape. On the off chance that stones are generally shaped to form rough fitting, such a work is known as rough picked form and on the off chance that they are deliberately shaped to form close fitting then it is called close-picked form.
- Flint rubble masonry
In this type, flints or cobbles which change in width and thickness from 7.5 cm to 15 cm and length from 15 cm to 30 cm are utilized. The stones are extremely hard but brittle. Quality of such walls can be expanded utilizing lacing course of thing long stones or blocks at 1 to 2 m vertical intervals.
- iv) Dry rubble masonry
In this masonry, mortar isn’t utilized as a part of the joints, so it is the cheapest however requires more aptitude in development. It is for the most part utilized for non-load bearing walls like compound walls.
- B) Ashlar Masonry:
In this masonry, square or rectangular blocks that are utilized are dressed and have extremely fine bed and end joints.
- I) Ashlar fine tooled
It is the finest stone masonry. The bed, joints and faces of the stones are chisel dressed to evacuate all unevenness and acquire perfectly horizontal and vertical joints.
- ii) Ashlar rough tooled
The beds and sides are finely chisel dressed yet the exposed face is dressed by rough tooling.
iii) Ashlar rock faced
The exposed face of the stones isn’t dressed however is kept as such to give rough facing.
- iv) Ashlar chamfered
It is extraordinary type of ashlar rock faced in which the strip provided around the edge of the exposed face is chamfered at an angle of 45 degree to a understanding of 25 mm.
- v) Ashlar block in course
It is an intermediate amongst ashlar and rubble masonry. Appearances of each stone are hammer dressed yet the vertical joints are not as straight and fine as in ashlar masonry.
- vi) Ashlar facing
It is given along with brick or concrete block to give better appearance. The exposed faces of the stone are harsh tooled and chamfered.
The Author of this article, Arun Mohan is writing articles for Swap Dial.